Title: Directly Printed Embedded Metal Mesh for Flexible Transparent Electrode via Liquid Substrate Electric-Field-Driven Jet
Abstract: Flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs) with embedded metal meshes play an indispensable role in many optoelectronic devices due to their excellent mechanical stability and environmental adaptability. However, low-cost, simple, efficient, and environmental friendly integrated manufacturing of high-performance embedded metal meshes remains a huge challenge. Here, a facile and novel fabrication method is proposed for FTEs with an embedded metal mesh via liquid substrateelectric-field-driven microscale 3D printing process. This direct printing strategy avoids tedious processes and offers low-cost and high-volume production, enabling the fabrication of high-resolution, high-aspect ratio embedded metal meshes without sacrificing transparency. The final manufactured FTEs with 80 mm × 80 mm embedded metal mesh offers excellent optoelectronic performance with a sheet resistance (Rs) of 6 Ω sq−1 and a transmittance (T) of 85.79%. The embedded metal structure still has excellent mechanical stability and good environmental suitability under different harsh working conditions. The practical feasibility of the FTEs is successfully demonstrated with a thermally driven 4D printing structure and a resistive transparent strain sensor. This method can be used to manufacture large areas with facile, high-efficiency, low-cost, and high-performance FTEs.