Title: Universal Strategy for Improving Perovskite Photodiode Performance: Interfacial Built-In Electric Field Manipulated by Unintentional Doping
Abstract: Organic–inorganic halide perovskites have demonstrated significant light detection potential, with a performance comparable to that of commercially available photodetectors. In this study, a general design guideline, which is applicable to both inverted and regular structures, is proposed for high-performance perovskite photodiodes through an interfacial built-in electric field (E) for efficient carrier separation and transport. The interfacial E generated at the interface between the active and charge transport layers far from the incident light is critical for effective charge carrier collection. The interfacial E can be modulated by unintentional doping of the perovskite, whose doping type and density can be easily controlled by the post-annealing time and temperature. Employing the proposed design guideline, the inverted and regular perovskite photodiodes exhibit the external quantum efficiency of 83.51% and 76.5% and responsivities of 0.37 and 0.34 A W−1, respectively. In the self-powered mode, the dark currents reach 7.95 × 10−11 and 1.47 × 10−8 A cm−2, providing high detectivities of 7.34 × 1013 and 4.96 × 1012 Jones, for inverted and regular structures, respectively, and a long-term stability of at least 1600 h. This optimization strategy is compatible with existing materials and device structures and hence leads to substantial potential applications in perovskite-based optoelectronic devices.